An 11 year study just published by the Norwegian University of Science and Technology may be the first study to prove a relationship between getting enough sleep and having a heart attack. Over 50,000 adults were followed over 11 years. Those that reported insomnia symptoms showed a 27 – 45% increase in heart attack incidence during that time. (the worse the insomnia, the higher the incidence of heart attack) Norwegian researcher Dr. Lars (how did I know his name was Lars?) Laugsand says the study needs confirmation, but it’s a good first step in identifying another possible risk factor for heart disease.
43%-51% of Americans polled in 2010 aged 13 – 45 said they rarely get a good night’s sleep. That’s too high.
Insomnia has become more common today because of the “so much to do and so little time” lifestyle many of us have adopted. It is often overlooked when people ask the question, “Why do I feel like crap all the time?”
Why should I sleep?
Contrary to what some think, sleeping isn’t a form of your body and brain “turning off” or “resting”. Your brain remains active during this time, but chemical reactions and processes that occur during sleep allow the brain to “reorganize” and “repair”. Growth hormone is manufactured and secreted during sleep which is one of the reasons why infants and children sleep more than adults. What you learned during the day becomes etched into your memory at night.
Your brain undergoes a series of cycles during sleep. You must reach all stages of this cycle 4-5 times during the night to get “healthful” sleep time. Disturbed or interrupted sleep does not seem to count. You may be in the bed for 8 hours with your eyes closed, but if you don’t reach the proper cycles, it’s as if you weren’t sleeping at all.
Poor sleep, or dozing, is just as bad for you as no sleep.
Do I have insomnia?
There are different ranges and causes for insomnia. If you have trouble falling asleep (it takes more than 30 minutes to fall asleep) or staying asleep for more than 3 night/week for over a month, that is termed as chronic insomnia. Sometimes there is a specific problem associated with the sleeplessness that causes a problem for just a short period of time such as if your dog died or you lost your job. That would be called acute insomnia. Once the problem is dealt with, the sleep returns.
Interestingly, more than 8 out of 10 people laying awake have secondary insomnia. That is, their insomnia occurs because of some specific reason like medical conditions, eating patterns or habits, or sleep apnea. If you can find the reason, you can treat the cause and the sleep will correct itself. For example, if you always have 2 cups of coffee before bedtime,……you get the idea.
If you have sleep apnea, you may not even know that you aren’t sleeping well. With sleep apnea, you seem to be sleeping, but during sleep, you stop breathing momentarily. This causes the brain to switch to survival mode to force you to breath. Because of this process, the brain never gets to go into that deep cycle of sleep. Sleep apnea can be very dangerous and sometimes requires a device that delivers forced oxygen via a mask into your lungs while you sleep. Loud snoring can sometimes indicate sleep apnea. This often occurs in overweight people but can occur in anyone. Sleep apnea can only be properly diagnosed with a sleep study. (you are monitored during sleep at a lab)
Children with enlarged tonsils can also have sleep apnea which causes them to have poor attention span, tiredness, and irritability during the day. (think your kid has ADD? Check his sleeping habits)
Restless leg syndrome (RLS) is another cause of poor sleep. You may have this and not even know it.
For the other near 20% of those suffering from insomnia, the sleeplessness is the primary problem and is its own disorder and can be treated with establishing lifestyle changes, behavioral cognitive therapy, or medications and/or supplements. If you are among this crowd it’s important to get help from your doctor or naturopath.
- depression/anxiety: studies show that insomnia precedes clinical depression and if the insomnia is cured, the depression may be stopped. In non-depressed people, REM or deep sleep causes chemical changes in our brain to regulate mood, but in the depressed individual, the REM sleep is flawed which affects mood. Sleep also helps to consolidate memory, but in the depressed, only the negative memories are processed. (see full article here)
- high blood pressure: High blood pressure risk was identified in poor sleepers in a 2011 study done by the British Heart Foundation. During sleep, your blood pressure drops as a normal response. In those with poor sleep patterns no blood pressure drop is seen. These people went on to develop full blown hypertension.
- diabetes: a study done at the University of Chicago Med School showed that lack of REM sleep significantly lowered a persons sensitivity to insulin. Insulin is secreted by your body to regulate blood sugar. If you can’t process insulin, your blood sugar remains high = diabetes.
- obesity: one recent study showed individuals chose high calorie, high carb, unhealthy foods when they were fatigued and tired from lack of sleep. Insomnia causes a metabolic change in an area of the brain that responds to high calorie foods. A small study seen in the Annals of Internal Medicine showed dieters burned less fat and more muscle when they slept 5 1/2 hours vs those who slept 8 1/2 hours. Not getting enough sleep also boosts blood cortisol levels, the hormone that causes belly fat. Here’s another study that confirms it.
- impaired immunity: during sleep your body releases cytokines that aid in fighting infection. Poor sleep habits reduce the production of these proteins so they are not available when your body needs them. This leads to increased susceptibility to bugs and more sickness. This was actually measured in adults receiving the flu vaccine. Those with insomnia did not produce the level of antibodies (flu fighters) that the good sleepers did.
- poor memory: during sleep, our memories are “consolidated”. You take what you have learned and seen that day, and convert it to “hard copy” in your brain to retrieve later if you need it. Disrupted sleep does not allow for this conversion.
- mood disorders: during deep sleep, chemicals that regulate mood are released. Without these chemicals, we get “pain-in-the-ass syndrome”. Lack of sleep leads to irritability (we all know people who need their sleep, don’t we?)
- Cancer: Here’s the kicker: a 2012 study looking at 412 post-menopausal breast cancer patients showed a definitive link between lack of sleep and more aggressive tumors and recurrence. The study demonstrated that those who reported getting an average of 6 hours of sleep/night or less developed more aggressive tumors with a greater rate of cancer recurrence. There was no difference in pre-menopausal women suggesting there is a different underlying process when certain hormone are involved. This was the first of its kind, so more research is needed.
Greater than 80% of people who can’t sleep probably could if they made some changes.
- set a routine: try to go to bed around the same time each night. Have a bedtime routine that consists of getting dressed, bathroom stuff (going and washing brushing teeth etc) and some form of relaxing activity for 10-15 minutes before you try to sleep like reading, listening to music (probably not Metallica) or taking a warm bath.
- avoid alcohol, caffeine and full meals at least 3 hours before sleep time.
- no naps after 3 pm
- get some form of regular exercise (at least 20 minutes 4x/week) but try not to exercise within 2 hours of bedtime
- keep your bedroom dark and cool. Think “cave”.
- use earplugs for noise a mask for light, or “white noise machines”
- if you worry about the next days chores, make a “to-do” list before you go to bed
- use your bed only for sleep (and sex…but you can have sex in places other than your bed.. just to be clear) not for just resting or working
- make sure you’re getting enough Vitamin B6 as it is this vitamin that is needed to make melatonin
2. Having a glass of wine before bed relaxes me. You may feel relaxed, but alcohol blocks the ability of your brain to cycle through the stages of sleep causing lack of sleep symptoms. You can fall asleep, but your sleep is flawed. Have a glass of wine with dinner instead.
3. You can always “catch up” on your sleep if you don’t get enough. That may sometimes work for the following day’s sleep, but you can’t sleep on Sunday for all the sleep you’ve missed during the week.
4. If you wake up in the middle of the night, try counting sheep. This has actually ben studied and it was found that counting sheep makes people more stressed out and anxious and actually delayed them falling back to sleep. If you wake up in the night and can’t go back after lying there for 15 minutes, get out of bed and engage in a relaxing activity like listening to music or a boring radio talk show. Try to avoid light exposure and looking at the clock. Return to bed when you start to feel sleepy.
5. The older you get, the less sleep you need. 7-9 hours is the requirement for all adults. Sleep patterns may change, (taking naps, waking during the night) but the requirements remain the same.
6. I don’t have insomnia because I fall asleep easily. If you fall asleep easily, but get up in the middle of the night or if you wake up very early (between 3 -6 am) every morning (and it’s not because your alarm went off) and this happens 3x/week you have insomnia.
7. Sleeping pills are addictive Addictive may not be the right word. Your body can become “used to” having that medication every night to fall asleep, or you may just become lax and don’t want to do all the things listed in the tips section above. You may also think “I will never be able to sleep without this pill” but if you try, you can.
10. If I am tired at 3 pm, I didn’t get a good night’s sleep. Actually, your body has a normal rhythm called a “circadian rhythm”. The human body is programmed to sleep between midnight and 7am and then again between 1-3 pm. (hence the term siesta) It is normal for you to feel tired during this afternoon time. A short brisk walk, or drinking fluids (not just caffeine) can help to wake you up.
Sleep is important! Get yours tonight!
Interesting sleep fact: A whale only sleeps 1 1/2 hours per day and its brain sleeps in shifts: the right side of the brain sleeps for 1 1/2 hours, then the left.